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Mix the cement and sand till it gets uniform colour.
After that, put the mixture on the aggregates and mix it properly with the help of a shovel.
Make a ditch at the centre of the mixture and pour water in it and mix it from outside to inside, till you get the concrete with the desired consistency.
While mixing the concrete manually, 10% more cement is required. Note that, it is necessary to use the mixture at the earliest, else the concrete may get set.
For the smaller concrete works, use manual compacting such as rodding with the help of a steel rod or tamping with a wooden cross beam.
The mechanical compacting is done with the help of vibrators. This can make the compaction more effective.
Generally, needle vibrators are used for the structures like footings, beams and columns.
Take care that the shaft pipe of the vibrator should not bend too much as it can break the pipe.
Be sure to clean the needle and shaft pipe after work.
Method of manual concrete mixing